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Basic geology, ore deposits, mining districts and regional geology

Nickel: Commodity Overview

Man’s first and mostly unintentional use of nickel began with making pottery and tools as early as 3500BC, but it’s intentional use is much more recent. The name “Nickel” is that of a mischievous ...

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Phosphates: Commodity Overview

Phosphate is a basic ingredient for some proteins and is important in the development of bones and teeth in animals. It is also essential in the growth of plants. Phosphate is ...

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Rare Earth Elements

rare earth oxides

There are 17 rare earth elements or REE for short. They include the 15 lanthanides, plus scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y). The lanthanides are  range from the lightest lanthanum (La), ...

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7 Rarest Metals Which You Never Heard Of


In terms of abundance in the Earth’s crust, the rarest metals are; gold, platinum, osmium, iridium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, tellurium and rhenium. The first two most of us have heard ...

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Folding, Faulting and Mineralization

On a smaller scale they can help identify planes of weakness and channels in which fluids may have deposited economic minerals. On a larger scale they can help the geologist to ...

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