Home / Knowledge Base / Geology (page 5)


Basic geology, ore deposits, mining districts and regional geology

Alluvial and Placer Mineral Deposits

Sluice box for gold mining. Image: CC

Technically a placer deposit is the general term for a mineral deposit formed by the concentration of moving particles by gravity. Alluvial is the name  for placer deposits formed by ...

Read More »

Classification of Mineral Deposits

Geologists, are known to have more opinions than economists, so it should come as no surprise that the classification of mineral deposits, is an on-going hot topic.  The details will ...

Read More »

Rare Earth Element Deposits

Karajini, WA

Rare earth elements (REE’s) are both essential to modern industry and are difficult to mine and extract. China has dominated the market for many years and has used their market ...

Read More »

Porphyry Copper Deposits

Bougainville Copper Ltd, Papua New Guinea looking across the pit - 1986

Most of the world’s copper is extracted from a type of mineral deposit called a “porphyry copper”. If you’ve seen a picture of a great big open-pit mining operation odds are ...

Read More »



Silver, along with gold, has been prized by humanity since ancient times. It’s still one of the world’s most traded metals. Silver is number 47 on the periodic table of ...

Read More »


Graphite is a form or “allotrope” of carbon. Another well-known allotrope of carbon is diamond, which goes to prove there is more to physical properties than just what something is ...

Read More »



Aluminium (or aluminum) is the thirteenth element on the periodic table. It has the symbol Al, which is an abbreviation of the Latin word alumen. Aluminium is a silvery white, ...

Read More »


copper cabonate staining blue

Copper has been used by mankind for over 10,000 years. Highly prized for its strength and its suitability for use weapons, the first alloy of copper, bronze, lent its name ...

Read More »


gold within quartz

Many civilisations have had an eternal love affair with gold. As a consequence, wars have been fought over it and many lives have been lost. It has become a symbol ...

Read More »

Epithermal Gold Deposits

Wairakei Geothermal Power Station New Zealand

Epithermal gold deposits are among the  richest gold deposits in the world with some bonanza grade ore shoots containing more than 1000 g/t gold, or in other words, a kilogram of ...

Read More »